Find in the following list the main frequently asked questions

Source: DGS

Coronaviruses belong to the Coronaviridae family, which includes viruses that can cause infection in humans, other mammals (for example, bats, camels, civets) and birds. To date, we have known eight coronaviruses that infect and can cause disease in humans. Typically, these infections affect the respiratory system and may be similar to common colds or progress to a more serious illness, such as pneumonia. Of the coronaviruses that infect humans, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 crossed the species barrier, that is, these viruses were transmitted to humans from a reservoir or host animal of these viruses. SARS-CoV originated an epidemic in 2002-2003 and MERS-CoV emerged in 2012 and caused sporadic cases of human infection or small clusters of cases of respiratory disease. The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease called COVID-19, was first identified in December 2019 in China.

The new coronavirus, designated SARS-CoV-2, was first identified in December 2019 in China, in the city of Wuhan. This new agent has never been identified in humans before. The source of the infection is still unknown.

The transmission route is still under investigation. Person-to-person transmission has been confirmed and infection already exists in several countries and in people who had not visited the Wuhan market. The investigation continues.

COVID-19 is the name given by the World Health Organization to identify the disease caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This new coronavirus was first identified in December 2019 in China, in the city of Wuhan. The initial cases of COVID-19 were associated with a market in Wuhan (Wuhan's Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market). The market closed on January 1, 2020, but the disease has progressed, triggering a worldwide epidemic or pandemic.

SARS-CoV-2 is the name of the new virus and means Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus - 2.
COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease) is the name of the disease and means Coronavirus Disease, referring to the year it was discovered, in 2019.
There is another coronavirus that causes a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, which was identified in 2002, this one is called SARS-CoV so the New Coronavirus is called SARS-CoV-2.

It is assumed that SARS-CoV-2 was introduced into the human species by zoonotic transmission, that is, from an animal species. Very similar viruses have been identified in bats and pangolins, but the involvement of these animals in the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in humans is not yet clear. Investigations continue to clarify this process so that we can better defend ourselves from new introductions.

Yes. In previous years, some coronaviruses have been identified that have caused outbreaks and severe respiratory infections in humans. Examples of this were:
• between 2002 and 2003 the severe acute respiratory syndrome (infection caused by the SARS-CoV coronavirus);
• in 2012 the Middle East respiratory syndrome (infection caused by the MERS-CoV coronavirus).

The signs and symptoms of COVID-19 vary in severity, from the absence of symptoms (being asymptomatic) to fever (temperature ≥ 38.0ºC), cough, sore throat, tiredness and muscle pain and, in the most severe cases, severe pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, septicemia, septic shock and eventual death.
The data show that the worsening of the clinical situation can occur quickly, usually during the second week of the disease.
Recently, anosmia (loss of smell) and in some cases loss of taste has also been seen, as a symptom of COVID-19. There is evidence from South Korea, China and Italy that patients with COVID-19 developed partial or total loss of smell, in some cases in the absence of other symptoms.

80% of COVID-19 cases have mild illness, that is, mild symptoms, namely, fever, rhinorrhea (runny nose), headache (headaches) and myalgia (body pain).
Only 15% of the cases present a severe condition, with pneumonia, difficulty breathing, requiring hospitalization and 5% may eventually need intensive care with the need for ventilation.
Most deaths are seen in older people and with other comorbidities (other chronic diseases).

Not all confirmed cases of COVID-19 require hospitalization, as long as they have a mild and stable clinical picture, are able to stay at home and follow-up by the health team at home is guaranteed.

No. Although the viruses that cause COVID-19 and the flu are transmitted from person to person and can cause similar symptoms, the two viruses are very different and do not behave in the same way.
COVID-19 disease is caused by a new virus called SARS-CoV-2 and influenza is caused by the influenza virus that has been circulating in the population for many hundreds of years. Unlike the flu, for COVID-19 the world population does not have any type of protective antibodies or immunity. In this way, the entire population is susceptible to the disease. While for the flu there is a vaccine and specific antivirals for treatment, for COVID-19 they are still in development.

An epidemic corresponds to the considerable increase in the number of cases of a given disease, in several regions or countries, in a given period of time.
A pandemic is the worldwide spread of a disease, which has spread to different continents, generally affecting a large number of people, with sustained transmission and in the community. Most of the time it is associated with great social disruption and puts global health services under enormous pressure.

Quarantine (“prophylactic isolation”) and isolation are essential measures of social withdrawal in Public Health. They are especially used in response to an epidemic and are intended to protect the population by breaking the chain of transmission between people.
The difference between quarantine (“prophylactic isolation”) and isolation starts from the state of illness of the person who wants to be away from society.
Quarantine is used in people who are assumed to be healthy, but may have been in contact with a confirmed COVID-19 patient.
Isolation is the measure used in sick people, so that through social withdrawal they do not infect other citizens.
These social exclusion measures are the most effective to break the transmission chains, and therefore used by the Health Authorities to minimize the transmission of COVID-19.


COVID-19 is transmitted person-to-person by close contact with people infected with SARS-CoV-2 (direct transmission), or through contact with contaminated surfaces and objects (indirect transmission).
Close contact transmission occurs mainly through droplets that contain viral particles that are released through the nose or mouth of infected people, when they cough or sneeze, and that can directly reach the mouth, nose and eyes of those close to them.
Droplets can settle on objects or surfaces that surround the infected person and thus infect other people when they touch these objects or surfaces with their hands, then touching their eyes, nose or mouth.
There is also evidence to suggest that transmission can occur from an infected person about two days before symptoms develop.

Currently, it is estimated that the disease incubation period (time from exposure to the virus to the appearance of symptoms) is between 1 and 14 days.

Community transmission means that the virus circulates in the community without being able to identify the origin of all transmission chains.

The person can transmit the infection about one to two days before the symptoms appear, however, the person is more infectious during the symptomatic period, even if the symptoms are mild and very nonspecific.
It is estimated that the infectious period lasts from 7 to 12 days in moderate cases and up to two weeks, on average, in severe cases.

No. The symptoms of COVID-19 are similar in children and adults. Children generally show milder symptoms and appear to report, in proportion, fewer cases of illness. The symptoms reported in children are initially identical to colds, such as fever, runny nose and cough. In some cases, vomiting and diarrhea have also been reported. It is not yet known whether some children may be at a higher risk of serious illness, for example, children with underlying medical conditions and special health care needs. There is much more to learn about how the disease affects children and research is under way.

According to the scientific evidence available to date, it is not yet possible to confirm whether people infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop protective immunity. The human organism can gain antibodies after infection and development of the disease.

The risk of transmission by SARS-CoV-2 from the feces of an infected person appears to be reduced. Although this is a virus excretion pathway, it does not appear to be a preferred route of transmission.

Currently, there is no evidence to support the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by food.
However, applying the precautionary principle, maintaining and reinforcing good hygiene and food safety practices during food handling, preparation and co-infection is recommended.
Assuming the precautionary principle, the WHO published on its website some recommendations regarding good hygiene and food safety practices as well as, at national level, the Food and Economic Security Authority (ASAE).
Of these guidelines on the preparation, preparation and consumption of food, the following are highlighted the strengthening of good hygiene practices:

  • Frequent and prolonged hand washing (with soap and water for 20 seconds), followed by proper drying to avoid cross contamination (for example, close the tap with a paper towel instead of the hand that opened it while it was dirty);
  • Proper disinfection of work benches and tables with appropriate products;
  • Avoid contamination between raw and cooked food;
  • Cook and "plate" food at appropriate temperatures and wash raw food properly;
  • Avoid sharing food or objects between people during their preparation, cooking and consumption.

The virus can survive on surfaces for hours or even days, if these surfaces are not cleaned and disinfected frequently.
The time that the virus persists on surfaces can vary under different conditions (for example, type of surface, temperature or humidity in the environment and the initial viral load that gave rise to the exposure). Recent studies show that SARS-CoV-2 can remain viable on surfaces such as plastic or metal for a maximum period of about 72 hours and in aerosols for a maximum period of 3 hours. On more porous surfaces such as cardboard, SARS-CoV-2 can remain viable for a period of 24 hours.
In our own home or in public spaces, the cleaning frequency must be increased, precisely so that there is no accumulation of viruses on the surfaces. Common household detergent and disinfectant (for example, bleach or alcohol) should be used.

Money changes hands hundreds or even thousands of times during circulation, being among the objects that, if contaminated with viruses, or other microorganisms (such as bacteria) can serve as a vehicle of transmission. It will not, however, be a common form of transmission for COVID-19. Hand hygiene when handling money is a good practice that, regardless of the current pandemic context, should always be applied.

No. The risk of infection by an order prepared and transported from abroad to Angola is very low. Although a person infected with SARS-CoV-2 can handle a product included in an order, or its packaging, the likelihood of being infected after that product has been exposed to such different atmospheric and transport conditions in terms of temperature and humidity is very reduced.

At the moment, there is no evidence that the spread of COVID-19 will slow when the weather gets warmer.
It is not yet known how the climate or temperature affects the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

Yes. Screens and keyboards should be cleaned frequently, preferably with alcohol-based cleaning and rapid disinfection wipes or another disinfectant that acts against the virus (virucidal action).

If the person has symptoms of COVID-19 or is a confirmed case, the clothes should be washed at home in the machine, at least 60-70ºC, but it can go up to 90ºC (that is, at the highest temperature, that the clothing can handle).
Clothes that cannot be washed hot must be washed with a cycle of warm water (30-40ºC) and then disinfected with a disinfectant cycle, suitable for white or colored clothes, depending on the type of clothes to be washed.
If you do not have a washing machine, wash your clothes with hot soapy water and then disinfect with the appropriate laundry disinfectant.


The treatment for infection with this new coronavirus is directed to the signs and symptoms that patients have and aims to provide relief and greater comfort to patients.
To date, considering current scientific knowledge and WHO recommendations, some therapeutic strategies are being investigated as potential therapeutic candidates.

There is currently no vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. As a recently identified virus, investigations are still underway in several countries to develop a vaccine with proven efficacy and which meets the necessary safety requirements.

No, antibiotics are directed at bacteria, having no effect against viruses. COVID-19 is caused by a virus, SARS-CoV-2, and as such, antibiotics are not effective in preventing or treating them. The misuse and without medical indication of antibiotics may contribute to the increase in resistance to antimicrobials (antibiotics) with a negative effect on individual and collective health.


The hygiene measures and respiratory etiquette aim to reduce the exposure and transmission of the disease and are:

  • Respiratory etiquette measures: cover your nose and mouth when sneezing or coughing, with a tissue or forearm, never with your hands, and always throw the tissue in the trash;
  • Wash your hands frequently. You should wash them whenever you blow, sneeze, cough or after direct contact with sick people. You should wash them for 20 seconds (the time it takes to sing “Congratulations”) with soap and water or with a 70% alcohol-based solution;
  • Avoid close contact with people with respiratory infection;
  • Avoid touching the face with your hands;
  • Avoid sharing personal objects or food that you have touched.

The virus has no nationality, age or gender, so we are all at risk of contracting COVID-19.
Still, the people who are most at risk of serious COVID-19 disease are the elderly and people with chronic illnesses (eg, heart disease, diabetes and lung disease).

Risk groups for COVID 19 include:

  • Elderly people over 70 years;
  • People with chronic diseases - heart, lung, diabetes, neoplasms or high blood pressure, among others;
  • People with compromised immune systems (undergoing chemotherapy treatments, treatments for autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis or some inflammatory bowel diseases), HIV / AIDS infection or transplant patients.

According to the measures that will be in force during the State of Emergency, people who are part of risk groups (over the age of 70 or with chronic diseases) are covered by a “special duty of protection”. These measures stipulate that you should only leave your home in exceptional and necessary circumstances.
You should:
o Stay at home. You should only leave the house if it is strictly necessary. Avoid close contact with people;
o Comply with hygiene rules and respiratory etiquette;
o Protect yourself, as you are at a higher risk of infection. You should always keep the therapy you regularly follow;
o Pay attention to the possible appearance of signs or symptoms. If you become ill, stay at home and call SNS24 (808 24 24 24).

• How long can the disease last?
COVID-19 can last up to five weeks. However, the duration depends on each patient, their immune system and whether or not there are associated chronic diseases, which alter the level of risk.

• Do I have to wear a mask to protect myself?
The use of a mask for individual protection is not indicated, except in the following situations:

  • Suspected infection or disease confirmed by COVID-19;
  • Health professionals and people who care for patients suspected of COVID-19;
  • Immunocompromised.

The Directorate-General for Health does not recommend the use of a protective mask for people who have no symptoms (asymptomatic). Using a mask incorrectly can increase the risk of infection. Since wearing a mask can be uncomfortable, discomfort can cause people to touch their faces more often and this gesture can contribute to contamination. It can also give a “false sense of security” and basic hand hygiene measures can be neglected as well as the most effective measure of maintaining the recommended distance between people (at least 1 meter away).

Put on the mask:

  • Wash your hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based solution (before putting on the mask);
  • Put the mask in the correct position. The folding edge should be up and the colored part out;
  • Hold the mask by the support / elastic lines and adapt to each ear;
  • Adjust the mask close to the nose and chin, without touching the face of the mask.

Remove the mask:

  • Wash your hands with soap and water or alcohol-based solution;
  • Remove the mask just by holding the support / elastic lines;
  • Keep the mask away from the face and clothing, to avoid touching potentially contaminated surfaces of the mask;
  • Place the mask in the appropriate container and wash your hands again.

There are no studies to confirm this issue. However, if the person who smokes already has respiratory or cardiac problems, this can contribute to the worsening of the person's clinical situation, if they become infected with COVID-19. A long-time smoker already has pulmonary changes that may be associated with pneumonia in case of COVID-19 infection.

The recovery of lung capacity is not immediate. But anyone who decides to quit smoking must do so because it will always make a difference (cancer, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, COPD and other chronic diseases) and will always have benefits for your health - in the short and long term.

Wash your hands thoroughly before and while cooking meals. Take care to properly wash raw food and cook and plate the food at appropriate temperatures.
Do not share food or objects among people during preparation, cooking and consumption. At all times, adopt respiratory label measures. Avoid contamination between raw and cooked food.

If you are going to travel by transport, what is recommended is that:
· Ensure a minimum distance from other people;
· Position yourself back to back against other people
· Use a mask ONLY if you have health problems.
· Avoid bringing your hands to your mouth, eyes or nose;
· Turn your face to the side, if someone is coughing in front of you and ask the person who is coughing to do it for a handkerchief or for the arm or elbow;
· Disinfect your hands with an alcohol-based solution or wash your hands as soon as possible.
· If the transport is full, you can, whenever possible, wait for the next one.


The World Health Organization does not recommend travel, trade or product restrictions to countries with an outbreak of COVID-19. Travel bans to affected areas or denied entry to passengers from affected areas are generally not effective in preventing the importation of cases.

However, there are areas of the globe with active community transmission where the risk of contagion is high. It is prudent for sick travelers to delay or avoid traveling to the affected areas, in particular the elderly and people with chronic illnesses or underlying health conditions.


Risk groups for COVID 19 include:

  • Old people;
  • People with chronic diseases - heart, lung, diabetes, neoplasms or high blood pressure, among others;
  • People with compromised immune systems (undergoing chemotherapy treatments, treatments for autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis or some inflammatory bowel diseases), HIV / AIDS infection or transplant patients.
  • Is being asthmatic a risk condition for COVID-19 infection?
    Asthma sufferers are considered to be at risk. For this reason, the social isolation measures recommended by the Directorate-General for Health are advised:
    · Stay at home. You should only leave the house if it is strictly necessary. Avoid close contact with people;
    · Protect yourself, as you are a person at greater risk of infection. You should always keep the therapy you regularly follow;
    · Comply with hygiene rules and respiratory etiquette;
    · In case of worsening, start the SOS medication you use in crises and contact SNS24.
    · Pay attention to signs and symptoms. If you get sick, stay home and call SNS24.

Yes. Anyone with diabetes, regardless of their age, is always at greater risk if they become ill with COVID-19, although the risk is always higher in older people.
A child or young person with type 1 diabetes, due to his illness, is at a higher risk than a healthy child or young person.

At this time it is not recommended that children be with their grandparents as they are considered a vulnerable group. Although children are less affected by this disease and have milder symptoms, they can transmit the virus to others.
It is preferable that children and grandparents talk through social networks, chats and cell phones during this phase of transmission of the disease.


You must stay at home. You should not go to work, school or public spaces. Stay in your own room and avoid contact with others in common spaces. Do not share dishes, glasses, kitchen utensils, sheets or other personal effects.
When you are with other people, wear a mask. Follow hand washing and respiratory etiquette recommendations. Monitor the symptoms and put your waste in a special bag.

Contact with the person with symptoms should be avoided, especially if they belong to vulnerable groups: elderly, chronically ill, immunosuppressed and pregnant women. Preferably, it should be a single person to take care of those who are sick.
After contact with the patient or his space, wash your hands with soap and water or with a solution based on alcohol. Frequently disinfect taps, switches and door handles, especially if the sick person uses common spaces.

No. Only those who cohabit with the person with COVID-19 should go to the room. In case of need for urgent contact with someone who does not live with the person in isolation, contact should be made by telephone.


There are no conclusive studies. However, it is known that smoking decreases immunity and increases the risk of contracting bacterial and viral lung infections, seasonal flu and tuberculosis, so it is expected that this increased risk also exists in relation to COVID-19.
On the other hand, it is possible that people who smoke or use heating or electronic cigarettes are more vulnerable to the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and Covid-19, because, during smoking, fingers, cigarettes or possibly contaminated mouthpieces may come into contact with the mouth, which increases the possibility of transmission of the virus. The use of hookahs (shisha) may involve sharing nozzles, which may also facilitate the transmission of the new coronavirus.
To reduce this risk, wash your hands before and after smoking, wash the nozzles and disinfect the heating devices or electronic cigarettes with an alcohol-based solution after purchase and often after use. Do not share cigarettes or equipment. Hookah nozzles must never be shared, and must be properly sanitized after use.

Although not everything is known about COVID-19 yet, older people, chronic cardiovascular, respiratory diseases or diabetes are at greater risk of developing serious complications if they are infected with the new coronavirus.
People who smoke are more likely to suffer from these diseases as a result of exposure to tobacco smoke. If they are infected with the new coronavirus, they may be at greater risk of suffering serious complications, as smoking damages the lung tissues and increases mucus production at the level of the bronchial tree, which contributes to increasing breathing difficulties. On the other hand, smoking decreases immunity, making the fight against infection and curing the disease slower and more difficult.

Studies in this area are not yet known. However, quitting smoking or using heating or electronic cigarettes eliminates the handling of cigarettes and the eventual touch of fingers, possibly contaminated, in the mouth.
On the other hand, it is possible that the preexisting chronic disease conditions can be better managed in case of infection, because smoking cessation has a positive impact on blood oxygen levels, on the reduction of respiratory symptoms and on the cardiovascular system, which improve over time. Better management of pre-existing chronic illnesses can increase the ability of patients with COVID-19 to respond better to infection and reduce the risk of more serious complications.

If you are a smoker, stop smoking. During this COVID-19 mitigation period, scheduled smoking cessation consultations were replaced, whenever possible, by telephone contacts. Find out from your health care unit, or from your family doctor or nurse, about the smoking cessation support available at this stage.
You can also use the following advice guide: 15 steps to quit smoking.
There are several free computer applications for mobile phones that can help you quit smoking.
If you really feel like smoking, you can use nicotine substitutes (over-the-counter drugs in pharmacies or healthcare facilities) for two purposes: to stop smoking or to reduce or replace the daily number of cigarettes smoked.
In general, a lozenge or gum is equivalent to a cigarette. Follow the advice of your doctor or pharmacist carefully and read the instructions for use carefully.

Stress periods can increase tobacco use and the desire to return to smoking in ex-smokers.
Try to manage stress without increasing tobacco consumption. Smoking more does not resolve anxiety and impairs your respiratory and cardiovascular health.
If you are a former smoker, it is very important that you do not smoke again. If you are using electronic or heating cigarettes to stop smoking, do not smoke conventional tobacco again. Try to quit smoking any nicotine product. That way you will improve your respiratory health and better withstand the possible risk of infection.
Think about your health and protect yourself from the risks of COVID-19.

Do not smoke indoors.
If you continue to smoke conventional cigarettes or other tobacco during the confinement period at home, it is important to be aware that environmental smoking or emissions from heating or electronic cigarettes are harmful to your health and the health of all those who share your dwelling. "When someone smokes, everyone smokes around them".
If you are unable to quit smoking, smoke on the balcony or terrace, keeping the access door to the interior of the house closed, in order to prevent the smoke from spreading inside. If you do not have this possibility, use a room with a window, smoke outside and keep the bedroom door closed. Choose a window that will not harm residents of adjoining dwellings. Keep the house well ventilated. If possible, try to use the small exits from the house, permitted by law, to smoke.

There are no studies to confirm this issue. However, if the person who smokes already has respiratory or cardiac problems, this can contribute to the worsening of the clinical situation, if they become infected with COVID-19. A long-time smoker already has pulmonary changes that can be associated with pneumonia in case of COVID-19 infection.

Clinical risks need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis, as the response of each individual to the infection will vary greatly. However, it is known that a person exposed to secondhand smoke for 8 hours a day has similar risks to a person who smokes 10 cigarettes.

The recovery of lung capacity is not immediate. But anyone who decides to quit smoking should do so because it will always make a difference (cancer, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, COPD and other comorbidities) and will always have benefits for your health - in the short and long term.

Yes, you must not share any personal effects with others, including tobacco. The virus is transmitted through our mucous membranes (mouth, eyes and nose).


People may be concerned about friends and family who live in or visit areas affected by COVID-19. Fear and anxiety can lead to social stigma, for example, towards Chinese or other Asians, or people in quarantine.

Stigma refers to discrimination against a group of people, a place or a nation. This is associated with the lack of knowledge about the transmission mode of COVID-19, the need to attribute blame, the fear of illness and possible death and the rumors and myths disseminated.

Stigma causes suffering, increasing fear or anger towards ordinary people, rather than focusing on the disease that is causing the problem.

People can fight stigma and help other people by providing them with social support. Combating stigma can be done through learning and sharing facts about COVID-19.

The fact that viruses do not target specific racial or ethnic groups should be reported, as well as the mode of transmission of COVID-19.


In published scientific studies, there is no information on the susceptibility of pregnant women to COVID-19. Pregnant women experience immunological and physiological changes that can make them more susceptible to viral respiratory infections, including COVID-19. During pregnancy, women may also be at risk for serious illness, morbidity or mortality compared to the general population, as seen in cases of other coronavirus-related infections [including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and coronavirus of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV)] and other viral respiratory infections, such as influenza (influenza).

Pregnant women should engage in usual preventive actions to prevent infections, such as washing their hands frequently and avoiding sick people, or suspected cases that are under surveillance. They must respect the recommended distance between close people (1 meter).

We have no information on adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19. Gestational loss, including spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, has been observed in cases of infection with other coronaviruses [SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV] during pregnancy. It is known that high fever during the first trimester of pregnancy can increase the risk of certain birth defects.

Pregnant healthcare professionals should follow the risk assessment and infection control guidelines for healthcare professionals exposed to patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Adherence to recommended infection prevention and control practices is an important part of protecting all healthcare professionals in healthcare settings. Information on COVID-19 in pregnancy is very limited; services may want to consider limiting the exposure of the pregnant healthcare professional to patients with COVID-19 (confirmed or suspected), especially when performing higher risk procedures (for example, procedures that generate aerosol particle production), if possible, based on staff availability.

The virus that causes COVID-19 is thought to spread mainly by close contact with an infected person through respiratory droplets. It is not yet known whether a pregnant woman with COVID-19 can transmit the virus that causes COVID-19 to her fetus or newborn via other vertical transmission routes (before, during or after delivery). However, in a limited series of recent cases of babies born to mothers with COVID-19 published in the peer-reviewed literature, two cases have been reported with positive results for COVID-19 infection, one newborn in the first 30 hours and the second in 48 hours, but the route of contagion is not certain. In retrospective studies of a small series of cases, the virus was not detected in samples of amniotic fluid, cord blood or breast milk.

There is limited information available on vertical transmission in relation to other coronaviruses (MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV), but vertical transmission has not been reported for these infections.

Based on a limited number of reported cases, complications have been observed in children (for example, premature birth) in babies born to mothers infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy. However, it is not clear that these complications are related to maternal infection and, at this time, the risk of complications in children is not known. Given that the data available for COVID-19 during pregnancy is limited, knowledge of complications related to other viral respiratory infections may provide some information. For example, other respiratory viral infections that occur during pregnancy, such as influenza, have been linked to neonatal complications, including low birth weight and prematurity. In addition, having a cold or flu with a high fever in early pregnancy can increase the risk of certain birth defects.

Women with other coronavirus, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections, during pregnancy, have had premature and / or small babies for gestational age.

At the moment, there is no information on the long-term health effects for babies with COVID-19 or for those exposed in the womb to COVID-19. In general, prematurity and low birth weight are associated with long-term health complications.

Person-to-person transmission through close contact with a person with confirmed COVID-19 occurs mainly through respiratory droplets produced when a person with an infection coughs or sneezes.
In limited series of cases reported to date, no evidence of viruses has been found in the breast milk of women with COVID-19. There is no information available on the transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19 through breast milk (that is, whether the infectious virus is present in the breast milk of an infected woman).

In limited reports of lactating women infected with SARS-CoV, the virus was not detected in milk; however, at least one sample of antibodies against SARS-CoV was detected.